Logically in nature, the composition is given as standard.

Even so, some rules must always be taken into account:

Standards or visual rules:

The rules of the composition should be used whenever we project and are:

  • The scale
  • The proportion
  • The unit
  • The diversity
  • The axes
  • The symmetry
  • The rhythm
  • Contrast
  • Harmony


There are two scales the human and the monumental.

  1. Human scale: the elements refer to the size of the person, it is used in gardening.
  2. Monumental scale: elements of larger dimensions appear in the field of the landscape is what we call macro landscape.

Harmony :

Association of elements or characteristics of similar elements. For example, colors that are together in the color wheel. In nature, it occurs intrinsically.


It is the balance that satisfies the human eye. The most harmonic proportion known is the golden ratio.


The unity in the landscape is the characteristic by which the image is perceived as a whole. In many cases, when designing, one should look for unity, elements that have a common link, this is achieved with a dominant element, so the rest is arranged around it.


Refers to the different characteristics of the landscape components. To emphasize that diversity must be unified, to avoid the feeling of chaos. Traditionally the human being has been the cause of diversity, which has been integrated into nature, although the rapidity in technological advances of recent times makes that integration with the natural lose …


These are lines from which the landscape components are arranged on both sides, they do not have to be axes of symmetry. (River, walk, firewall)


With the appearance of the symmetry axes, the components are arranged. Whenever it appears, the ideas of tranquility and balance are underlined. Except in the case of rivers they do not usually appear in nature.

There are three types:

  • Bilateral: river with riverbank forest.
  • Kaleidoscopic: only as an anthropic element, it is symmetry with numerous axes.
  • Dualist: the images on the sides are complementary.


Repetition of similar or contrasting elements, also characteristic of elements, such as color, or in a mountainous area the succession of peaks or areas of Solana and Umbria. It provides dynamism, a movement that repeats, stable, cadence repetition. There may be rhythm in shapes, colors, elements …


Association of elements or characteristics of opposing elements, always looking to highlight dominant elements, also occurs in color, surface, texture, shapes …

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Robert Griffin

Blog dedicated to gardening and landscaping where we will give tips on the design, maintenance, plant diseases, tips, and tricks…


June 2023