Therefore, whenever we talk about perception, we mean visual perception and its three essential elements:
- The landscape
- The observer
- The visibility is the space between the landscape and the observer
Although the three perceptual elements are the basic ones, if there is no interpretation of the landscape by the observer, the perception is not considered complete.
There is a psychological need for landscape perception, in fact, there are certain diseases of
a psychological nature that is accused of a lack of perception of nature.
THE OBSERVER AND THE VISION
There are two fundamental aspects between the observer / visual perception of the landscape, they are Visual length It is similar to the term depth that is used in photography, with respect to which we have shorter or longer views. This makes it possible to define different visual fields, there are several criteria but we can summarize in three – 1st plane or previous plane – 2nd plane or middle plane or landscape – 3rd plane or back plane or scenic background The distances that must be allocated to each plane They are not delimited. We can be guided by the following guidance measures: 1st plane up to 200 m, in any case, we must be able to appreciate the details.
2nd plane 200m – 800m, this is not seen in detail but if each element of the landscape and the interrelation between them.
3rd plane more than 800m or 1Km, the elements are blurred, the shapes are appreciated and the relief takes great importance. It is up to 1 km which usually gives the view length.
Of course, the aforementioned plans are in turn subdivisible, being able to speak of a 1st posterior plane or a distant or near medium plane …
It is the depth that the vision reaches on the sides of the main axis of the landscape without finding barriers/screens that close the view longitudinally.
The amplitudes are also differentiated by distances without a fixed rule.
- less than 200m
- less 1000m
- 1000 – 2000m
- 2000 – 3000m
- more 3000m
The breadth of the view is studied because the landscape is appreciated more landscape with three planes and open views
FACTORS THAT MODIFY THE VISION:
The curvature of the earth and the reflection of light :
Without deepening much, the terrestrial curvature generates a sensation of reduction in the size of the landscape elements and the refraction of the light rays in the atmosphere will influence the elements of the landscape giving a feeling of height increase.
This is interesting when working with the location of discordant elements in height
The quality of visual perception decreases when the distance increases. It is interesting to know the distance to which we are interested (between the middle plane and the scenic background).
The colors become paler and less bright with distance, tending to bluish tones. The lighter colors stand out more than the dark ones and the landscape lines blur. The texture loses contrast and the grain becomes thinner.
Modify the visual conditions of the landscape elements. An excess of cloudiness reduces color tints and makes dark tones predominate, which also lose brightness, are gray days.
The presence of snow means that, due to the refraction of light, the elements are brighter and the geometry of the elements increases.
Depending on how the sun is placed with respect to the observer.
The frontal light to the landscape, behind the observer, reduces the shadows to a minimum. The colors seem brighter and lighter, there is a slight flattening of the volumes.
The backlight leaves the landscape in shadow and the surface of that landscape loses brightness and contrast. The silhouette of the volumes is enlarged. With central light, the perception of the landscape has also facilitated the orientation.
The longer the observation time, the better the perception of the landscape.
Mobility of the observer:
The landscape can be observed from a mobile (vehicle) or stationary (viewpoint) position.
Position of the observer:
They mainly influence the vertical movements of the observer with respect to the landscape
Lower positions (upper landscape): the landscape forms seem larger and the perspective is lost (depth and breadth of the visual field) dominant view ≡ dominated observer.
Higher positions: the length and breadth of the visual field are increased. We would have a dominated view and a dominant observer, reinforced with viewpoints.